Brown Race

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"At the beginning of this cycle of time, long ago, the Great Spirit came down and He made an appearance and He gathered the peoples of this earth together and He said to the human beings, 'I'm going to send you to four directions and over time I'm going to change you to four colors, but I'm going to give you some teachings and you will call these the Original Teachings and when you come back together with each other you will share these so that you can live and have peace on earth, and a great civilization will come about.' And he said 'During the cycle of time I'm going to give each of you two stone tablets. When I give you those stone tablets, don't cast those upon the ground. If any of the brothers and sisters of the four directions and the four colors cast their tablets on the ground, not only, will human beings have a hard time, but almost the earth itself will die.' " -- Lee Brown, Baha'i- Cherokee, Baha'i Continental Indigenous Council, Fairbanks, Alaska, 1986

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Being Brown

Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature.  He developed the original racial model of four races: white, yellow, red, and black.  It was his protege, anthropology founder Johann Blumenbach, who completed his mentor's color-coded race model by adding the brown race, "Malay", for both the Malay division of Austronesian which are Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, Pattani, Singapore, Sumatra Madagascar, Formosans, etc. and Polynesians and Melanesians of Pacific Islands, and for Papuans and Aborigines of Australia. 

Blumenbach characterized the racial classification scheme of another researcher, John Hunter when he wrote,

"In 1775, John Hunter of Edinburg included under the label light brown: Southern Europeans, Sicilians, Abyssinians, Spanish, Persians, Turks and Laplanders, and under the label brown:   Tartars, Africans on the Mediterranean and the Chinese.   -- Johann Blumenbach

The appellation "brown people" has been applied in the 20th and 21st centuries to several groups, usually mixed race ones.

"Black and white when mixed as pigments may produce gray, but when 'black' and 'white' humans mix the result is usually some type of 'brown' "  -- Jack Forbes

Edward Telles is another academic in this field. He and Forbes both argue that this classification is biologically invalid.

"It is still of sociological significance. Irrespective of the actual biological differences amongst humans, and of the actual complexities of human skin colouration, people nonetheless self-identify as 'brown' and identify other groups of people as 'brown', using characteristics that include skin colour, hair strength, language, and culture, in order to classify them. Forbes remarks upon a process of 'lumping', whereby characteristics other than skin colour, such as hair colour or curliness, act as 'triggers' for colour categories 'even when it may not be appropriate' ".  -- Edward Telles

Some anthropologists added the brown race back in as an Australoid category (which includes Aboriginal peoples of Australia along with various peoples of southeast and south Asia, especially Melanesia and the Malay Archipelago),and viewed it as separate from Negroids (often lumping Australoids in with Caucasoids).

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Inter-racial Couples are Growing in Popularity

By the 19th century, the notion of a single "brown people" was being overthrown. Cust mentions Grammar in 1852, denying that there was one single "brown race", but in fact several races speaking distinct languages. The 1858 Cyclopaedia of India and of eastern and southern Asia notes that Keane was dividing the "brown people" into quaternion: a western branch that he termed the Malay, a north-western group that he termed the Micronesian, and the peoples of the eastern archipelagoes that he termed the Maori and the Polynesian. Anthropologists and scholars were at the least dividing the people of the Pacific into the "dark people" and the "brown people". The "dark people" were the inhabitants of the Western Pacific as far as Fiji. The "brown people" were the people inhabiting the islands to the east of Fiji, as far as Easter Island.

"Mediterranean or Brown race, the eastern branch of which reaches to India and the western to the British Isles and Ireland [and includes] pre-dynastic Egyptians [and some populations of] Neolithic man"  -- Donald Mackenzie, 1915

Browns in South Africa

In 1950s (and later) the racial slur "Colored" was invented to describe "brown people" from South Africa, including those born of black-white sexual union. The Afrikaans terms, which incorporate many subtleties of heritage, political agenda, and identity, are "bruin" ("brown") , "bruines" ("browns"), and "bruinmense" ("brown people"). Some South Africans prefer the appellation "bruinmense" to "Colored".

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U.S. President Barack Obama

U.S. President Obama, born to a black father and a white mother, is not only the first black president but the first biracial president.

Stephen Biko, in his bigoted and racist trial in 1976, rejected the appellation "brown people" when it was put to him by Judge Boshoff:

"Boshoff:  'But now why do you refer to your people as blacks? Why not brown people? I mean you people are more brown than black.'
Biko: 'In the same way as I think white people are more pink and yellow and pale than white.'
Boshoff: 'Quite, but now why do you not use the word brown then?'
Biko: 'No, I think really, historically, we have been defined as black people, and when we reject the term non-white and take upon ourselves the right to call ourselves what we think we are, we have got available in front of us a whole number of alternatives, and we choose this one precisely because we feel it is most accommodating.' "

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Kemang Wa Lehulere, South African Pencil Test

Pardos in Brazil

In Brazil, the "brown people" are the "pardos", one of the skin colour categories ("branco", "pardo", "preto", "amarelo", and "indigena" being Portuguese for "white", "(grey) brown", "black", "yellow", and "indigenous", respectively) that have been used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics since 1940. It is a broad classification that encompasses people of mixed race, mulattos, and assimilated indigenous people ("caboclos").

Between the 16th and 19th centuries, this South American nation received more African slaves than any country in the Americas. But the shortage of white women, and a less rigid view of racial differences, led Portuguese settlers to mix more readily with nonwhite women than did their English counterparts in North America. The result was the creation of a large, racially mixed population. And unlike the Anglo Americans in the United States, who generally saw society in stark, bipolar racial terms and chose to deny the mixture that did occur, the Portuguese learned to view race on a continuum -- white and black with many shades in between.

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Albino Children Born to Brown-Skinned, Afro-Brazillian Couple

This doesn’t mean that there was no racism. Indeed, the array of terms used in Brazil to describe different shades of skin color speaks to the existence of a long-standing racial hierarchy in which whites were deemed to be on top and unmixed blacks on the bottom. But despite that, the recognition of gradations of mixture made the idea of race more fluid than it is in the U.S., where social convention has held that anyone with one drop of "African blood" is black. In Brazil, degrees of whiteness -- and social acceptance -- could be achieved through selective mating.

Indeed, in the late 19th and early 20th century, Brazil’s immigration policy was largely based on an effort to "whiten" the population by adding more European immigrants to the mix. In 1912, Brazilian scientist João Batista de Lacerda predicted that by 2012, the ongoing process of mixture would produce a Brazilian population that was 80% white, 3% mixed race and 17% Indian.

But by the 1960s, a small but savvy Brazilian "black movement", inspired in part by the U.S. civil rights movement, began to challenge the national consensus on race. For the next generation, activists called for more research on racial inequality in Brazil, and though they were ultimately incapable of creating an effective mass movement, they successfully influenced the debate. By 2001, their controversial demand for affirmative action in public universities became a reality.

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Mardi Gras of Brazil highlights the Padros or the Browns

In popular use, Brazilians also use a category of "moreno", which is extremely ambiguous, as it can mean "dark haired people", but is also used as a euphemism for "pardo", and even "Black". In a 1995 survey, 32% of the population self-identified as "moreno", with a further 6% self-identifying as "moreno claro" ("light moreno"). 7% self-identified as "pardo".

Note that despite "moreno" being commonly used by some persons as a racial classification (mainly in Brazil), "moreno" is, in fact, the Portuguese equivalent to the English word "brunet(te)". It is used to describe a brown, dark brown or black-haired person as opposed to a blond (loiro/loira/louro/loura) one. In Portugal, it is also used to refer to skin colour; it is used usually referring to a heavily tanned white person. It is often preceded by the adjectives more or less, and is used to compare one person's colour to another.

Capoeira
Capoeira, an Afro-Brazilian martial art

"Even as U.S. society struggles to move beyond its confining binary view of race -- white versus black with nothing in between -- Brazil, a country where the celebration of racial mixture has long been a central part of the national self-image, may be heading in the opposite direction".  -- Gregory Rodriguez, Los Angeles Times, September 3, 2006

For the last five years, a growing number of universities have adopted and experimented with different types of affirmative action quotas designed primarily to aid blacks and the poor. On the one hand, the fractious debate over affirmative action has helped convince more Brazilians that their history of racial mixture did not erase color-based discrimination. On the other, the establishment of a quota system is obliging a society that has always had a fluid notion of race to begin to standardize, collapse and solidify racial categories in order to determine who exactly should benefit from this race-based entitlement.

"Now that blackness confers a benefit, he says, the whitening process will be reversed and more pardos will come to consider themselves fully black. "People are already bringing their [black] grandmothers out of the closets".  -- Civil rights attorney Humberto Adami

South Asia

It is said that the racial qualities mentioned by Elliot Smith were exactly the same as those mentioned by Giuseppe Sergi who wrote of the "Mediterranean race". Sergi too spoke of a brown race, although he discussed their distribution throughout Afro-Eurasia. Scientific racism often included the populations of South Asia as blending from the Mediterranean (Europid) to the Australoid (Dravidian) race in a north-to-south gradient. The term 'Brown' was also used by British Empire as a derogatory term for natives of the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Australia. Later, the term 'Brown' began to be used as descriptor for British people of South Asian origin.

The Punjabi people are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group from South Asia. They originate from the Punjab region, which has been host to some of the oldest civilizations in the world including one of the world’s first and oldest civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization.

Indo-Ayran
Spinner, Punjab, India

Some Desi or South Asian Americans will identify their race as brown, which Sociologist A. Rajagopal thinks is a result of identifying with Hispanic Americans who are more likely to identify as brown. Although Indian Americans and Hispanic Americans who identify their race as brown may not identify each other as the same race.

"The fundamental thing wrong with this country is a lack of pride in being Filipino. 'All Filipinos want to be something else. The poor ones want to be American, and the rich ones all want to be Spaniards. Nobody wants to be Filipino.'  No pride, no identity, no recollection of his glorious past that can project him in leading the future of his country. 'A people without a sense of history is a people doomed to be unaware of their own identity.' "  -- Barth Suretsky

Austronesians

The Austronesian-speaking peoples are various populations in Oceania and Southeast Asia that speak languages of the Austronesian family. They include Taiwanese aborigines; the majority ethnic groups of East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Brunei, Madagascar, Micronesia, and Polynesia, as well as the Polynesian peoples of New Zealand and Hawaii, and the non-Papuan people of Melanesia. They are also found in Singapore, the Pattani region of Thailand, and the Cham areas of Vietnam (remnants of the Champa kingdom which covered central and southern Vietnam), Cambodia, and Hainan, China. The territories populated by Austronesian-speaking peoples are known collectively as Austronesia.

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Taiwanese Aborigines are Pure Austronesian

"Polynesians and their unique culture evolved developed in Savai'i and Upolu, Samoa and Tonga in around 2000-500BC with Savai'i as the motherland ( breeding ground ). Nowhere else on earth will you find ancient Polynesian remains other than within the Polynesian Triangle or maybe along the coast of the adjacent land masses like the Americas.
The Polynesian forebears were from South East Asia conclusively. They had their own culture which was different from the later developed Polynesian culture. The Polynesian race from a scientific perspective ( Population Genetics & Anthropology ) is a speciation derived from the intermixing of ancient forebears. Scientific scholars of Hawaii attribute the Polynesians as the bloodline intermixing of an ancient mongoloid race of forebears and a negroid race of forebears, hence their Egyptian like morphologies. Malayo-Polynesian is a consequence of influences yet genotypes & phenotypes affirm the Hawaii scientific determination." -- Peter Leiataua AhChing
See our page on Hawaiian Sovereignty!

Hispanics

The terms Hispanic and Latino tend to be used interchangeably in the United States for people with origins in Spanish-speaking or Portuguese-speaking countries, like Mexico, Costa Rica, and Brazil. The 1970 Census was the first time that a "Hispanic" identifier was used and data collected with the question. The definition of "Hispanic" has been modified in each successive census. The 2000 Census asked if the person was "Spanish/Hispanic/Latino".

The U.S. Office of Management and Budget currently defines "Hispanic or Latino" as "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". The U.S. Department of Transportation defines Hispanic to include, "persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or others Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race."

Puerto Rico

The population of Puerto Rico has been shaped by Amerindian settlement, European colonization, slavery, economic migration, and Puerto Rico's status as unincorporated territory of the United States.

Continuous European immigration during the 19th century helped the population grow from 155,000 in 1800 to almost a million at the close of the century. A census conducted by royal decree on September 30, 1858 gives the following totals of the Puerto Rican population at this time: 341,015 as "free" colored; 300,430 identified as Whites; and 41,736 were slaves.

During the 19th century, hundreds of Corsican, French, Lebanese, Chinese, and Portuguese families arrived in Puerto Rico, along with large numbers of immigrants from Spain (mainly from Catalonia, Asturias, Galicia, the Balearic Islands, Andalusia, and the Canary Islands) and numerous Spanish loyalists from Spain's former colonies in South America.

Peurto Rican Nationalism
Celebrating the Puerto Rico Democracy Act

The following results from the 2010 Census paint a very clear picture of the growing importance of Brown Hispanics, especially in light of the final Note:

Racial and Ethnic Composition in Puerto Rico (2010 Census)
White 75.8%
Black or African American 12.4%
Asian 0.2%
Two or more races 3.3%
American Indian 0.5%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 0.1%
Other Races 7.8%
Note: Hispanic or Latino (of any race) makes up 99.0 percent of the population.


Hispanic Ancestral Homeland

One reason Hispanic advocates claim the assimilation of Hispanics in the U.S. is not comparable to that of other cultural groups is that Hispanic and Latino Americans have been living in parts of North America for centuries, in many cases well before the English-speaking culture became dominant. For example, California, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico (1598), Arizona, Nevada and Florida Puerto Rico have been home to Hispanic peoples (Spanish Origin) since the 16th century, long before the U.S. gained independence from Great Britain. These and other Spanish-speaking territories were part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later Mexico, before these regions joined or were taken by the United States in 1848.

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Aztlan and the First Nations of North America

Some cities in the U.S. were founded by Spanish settlers in the 16th century, prior to the creation of the Thirteen Colonies. For example, San Miguel de Galdape, Pensacola and St. Augustine, Florida were founded in 1526, 1559 and 1565 respectively, Santa Fe, New Mexico was founded in 1604, and Albuquerque was established in 1660, In the case of St. Agustine Florida it was founded by Puerto Rico's first governor Juan Ponce de Leon. Therefore, in many parts of the U.S., the Hispanic cultural legacy predates British influence. For this reason, according to Hispanic advocates, many generations have largely maintained their cultural traditions and Spanish language.

Just how far back does traditional Hispanic Culture go?

Aztecs and Aztlan

Aztlán (from Nahuatl: Aztlān, pronounced [ˈastɬaːn]) is the mythical ancestral home of the Nahua peoples, one of the main cultural groups in Mesoamerica. And, by extension, is the mythical homeland of the Uto-Aztecan peoples. Aztec is the Nahuatl word for "people from Aztlan".

Nahuatl legends relate that seven tribes lived in Chicomoztoc, or "the place of the seven caves". Each cave represented a different Nahua group: the Xochimilca, Tlahuica, Acolhua, Tlaxcalan, Tepaneca, Chalca, and Mexica. Because of a common linguistic origin, those groups also are called "Nahuatlaca" (Nahua people). These tribes subsequently left the caves and settled "near" Aztlán, or Aztatlan.

The various descriptions of Aztlán are seemingly contradictory. While some legends describe Aztlán as a paradise, the Aubin Codex says that the Aztecs were subject to a tyrannical elite called the Azteca Chicomoztoca. Guided by their priest, the Aztec fled, and, on the road, their god Huitzilopochtli forbade them to call themselves Azteca, telling them that they should be known as Mexica.

According to the legend, this southward migration to the shores of Lake Texcoco began on May 24, 1064 CE; 1064 is also the year of a volcanic explosion at Sunset Crater in Arizona and the first Aztec solar year, beginning on May 24, after the Crab Nebula events from May to July of 1054.  According to Aztec legend, Aztlan had an island in the middle of a lake, a situation they tried to recreate at their new capital of Tencochtitlan.

After the Spanish conquest of Mexico, the story of Aztlán gained importance and was reported by Fray Diego Durán in 1581 and others to be a kind of Eden-like paradise, free of disease and death, which existed somewhere in the far north. These stories helped fuel Spanish expeditions to what is now the American state of California.

Equal Rights

The 1960s in the United States saw the creation of "brown pride" movements such as the Chicano / Chicana Movement. Chicano activism lead to educational reforms, seeing the birth of the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, which formed with the goal of protecting the civil rights of Hispanics. It was the first organization dedicated to such a cause.

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Chicano

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Hispanics not only pressed for equal rights, they began to question the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. This 1848 agreement ended the Mexican-American War and resulted in America acquiring the land that now comprises the states of California, Utah, and Nevada, as well as parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Colorado.  Mexico also renounced all rights to Texas.

During the Civil Rights Era, Chicano radicals began to demand that the land be given to Mexican Americans, as they believed it constituted their ancestral homeland, also known as Aztlán, the "place of whiteness" or "place of heroes".

The treaty extended U.S. citizenship to Mexicans in the newly-purchased territories, before many African Americans, Asians and Native Americans were eligible. Between 1850 and 1920, the U.S. Census counted most Mexicans as racially "white",despite the actual mixed ancestry of most Mexicans. Nonetheless, racially-tinged tensions persisted in the era following annexation, reflected in such things as the Greaser Act in California, as three thousand Mexican nationals suddenly found themselves living within the borders of the United States. Mexican communities remained segregated de facto from and also within other U.S. communities, continuing through Mexican migration right up to the end of the 20th century throughout the Southwest, Texas and California.

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Protesters Demonstrating Against Arizona Immigration Law.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo upheld pre-existing Spanish Land Grants in New Mexico.  But the protections afforded to Land Grant Owners by the Treaty have been rarely enforced.  In 1966, Reies López Tijerina led a three-day march from Albuquerque, N.M., to the state capital of Santa Fe, where he gave the governor a petition calling for the investigation of New Mexican land grants. He argued the U.S.’s annexing of Mexican land in the 1800s was illegal.

As a vocal spokesman for the rights of Hispanics and Mexican Americans, Reies López Tijerina became a major figure of the early Chicano Movement (although he prefers "Indohispano" as a name for his people). As an activist, he worked in community education and organization, media relations and land reclamations. He became famous internationally for his 1967 armed raid on the Tierra Amarilla courthouse.

La Raza and The Brown Berets

The idea of a unified Chicano people also played out when political party La Raza Unida, or the United Race, formed to bring issues of importance to Hispanics to the forefront of national politics. Other activist groups of note include the Brown Berets and the Young Lords, which was made up of Puerto Ricans in Chicago and New York. Both groups mirrored the Black Panthers in militancy.

"The Brown Berets de Aztlan have undertaken an active campaign to recruit more soldiers and form new chapters throughout Aztlan.  We will be having a series of presentations throughout the Southwest starting in San Diego on May 8, 2008."  -- Chairman David Rico

David Rico is one of the original founders of the Brown Berets in California and was one of the Brown Beret soldiers that seized and took over land in Barrio Logan in San Diego that later became the now world famous "Chicano Park".


The Spiritual Plan of Aztlán

azitlansymbol

In March 1969, hundreds of Chicano activists gathered for the First National Chicano Youth Liberation Conference in Denver, Colorado.  The name of the conference is significant as it marks the replacement of term "Mexican" by “Chicano”.  

At the conference, activists developed a manifesto of sorts called El Plan Espiritual de Aztlan or “The Spiritual Plan of Aztlán”.  The plan presented for the first time a clear statement of the growing nationalist consciousness of the Chicano people. It raised the concept of Aztlan, a Chicano nation, and the need for Chicano control of the Chicano community. 

"Nationalism as the key to organization transcends all religious, political, class, and economic factions or boundaries.  Nationalism is the common denominator that all members of La Raza can agree upon."  -- El Plan Espiritual de Aztlán

Aztlan map
Territorial map of AZTLAN

El Plan Espiritual de Aztlán

In the spirit of a new people that is conscious not only of its proud historical heritage but also of the brutal "gringo" invasion of our territories, we, the Chicano inhabitants and civilizers of the northern land of Aztlán from whence came our forefathers, reclaiming the land of their birth and consecrating the determination of our people of the sun, declare that the call of our blood is our power, our responsibility, and our inevitable destiny.
We are free and sovereign to determine those tasks which are justly called for by our house, our land, the sweat of our brows, and by our hearts.  Aztlán belongs to those who plant the seeds, water the fields, and gather the crops and not to the foreign Europeans.
We do not recognize capricious frontiers on the bronze continent Brotherhood unites us, and love for our brothers makes us a people whose time has come and who struggles against the foreigner "gabacho" who exploits our riches and destroys our culture. With our heart in our hands and our hands in the soil, we declare the independence of our mestizo nation.
We are a bronze people with a bronze culture. Before the world, before all of North America, before all our brothers in the bronze continent, we are a nation, we are a union of free pueblos, we are Aztlán.

Official Flag of Azatlan
Official Flag of Atzlan

Plan Program and Organizational Goals

El Plan Espiritual de Aztlán sets the theme that the Chicanos (La Raza de Bronze) must use their nationalism as the key or common denominator for mass mobilization and organization. Once we are committed to the idea and philosophy of El Plan de Aztlán, we can only conclude that social, economic, cultural, and political independence is the only road to total liberation from oppression, exploitation, and racism. Our struggle then must be for the control of our barrios, campos, pueblos, lands, our economy, our culture and our political life. El Plan commits all levels of Chicano society - the barrio, the campo, the ranchero, the writer, the teacher, the worker, the professional - to La Causa.

  1. UNITY in the thinking of our people concerning the barrios, the pueblo, the campo, the land, the poor, the middle class, the professional-all committed to the liberation of La Raza.

  2. ECONOMY: economic control of our lives and our communities can only come about by driving the exploiter out of our communities, our pueblos, and our lands and by controlling and developing our own talents, sweat, and resources. Cultural background and values which ignore materialism and embrace humanism will contribute to the act of cooperative buying and the distribution of resources and production to sustain an economic base for healthy growth and development Lands rightfully ours will be fought for and defended. Land and realty ownership will be acquired by the community for the people's welfare. Economic ties of responsibility must be secured by nationalism and the Chicano defense units.

  3. EDUCATION must be relative to our people, i.e., history, culture, bilingual education, contributions, etc. Community control of our schools, our teachers, our administrators, our counselors, and our programs.

  4. INSTITUTIONS shall serve our people by providing the service necessary for a full life and their welfare on the basis of restitution, not handouts or beggar's crumbs. Restitution for past economic slavery, political exploitation, ethnic and cultural psychological destruction and denial of civil and human rights. Institutions in our community which do not serve the people have no place in the community. The institutions belong to the people.

  5. SELF-DEFENSE of the community must rely on the combined strength of the people. The front line defense will come from the barrios, the campos, the pueblos, and the ranchitos. Their involvement as protectors of their people will be given respect and dignity. They in turn offer their responsibility and their lives for their people. Those who place themselves in the front ranks for their people do so out of love and carnalismo. Those institutions which are fattened by our brothers to provide employment and political pork barrels for the gringo will do so only as acts of liberation and for La Causa. For the very young there will no longer be acts of juvenile delinquency, but revolutionary acts.

  6. CULTURAL values of our people strengthen our identity and the moral backbone of the movement. Our culture unites and educates the family of La Raza towards liberation with one heart and one mind. We must insure that our writers, poets, musicians, and artists produce literature and art that is appealing to our people and relates to our revolutionary culture. Our cultural values of life, family, and home will serve as a powerful weapon to defeat the gringo dollar value system and encourage the process of love and brotherhood.

  7. POLITICAL LIBERATION can only come through independent action on our part, since the two-party system is the same animal with two heads that feed from the same trough. Where we are a majority, we will control; where we are a minority, we will represent a pressure group; nationally, we will represent one party: La Familia de La Raza!

Chicano Revolt
Chicano Revolt

Action Items

  1. Awareness and distribution of El Plan Espiritual de Aztlán. Presented at every meeting, demonstration, confrontation, courthouse, institution, administration, church, school, tree, building, car, and every place of human existence.

  2. September 16, on the birth date of Mexican Independence, a national walk-out by all Chicanos of all colleges and schools to be sustained until the complete revision of the educational system: its policy makers, administration, its curriculum, and its personnel to meet the needs of our community.

  3. Self-Defense against the occupying forces of the oppressors at every school, every available man, woman, and child.

  4. Community nationalization and organization of all Chicanos: El Plan Espiritual de Aztlán.

  5. Economic program to drive the exploiter out of our community and a welding together of our people's combined resources to control their own production through cooperative effort.

  6. Creation of an independent local, regional, and national political party.

Aztlan, a nation autonomous and free -- culturally, socially, economically, and politically -- will make its own decisions on the usage of our lands, the taxation of our goods, the utilization of our bodies for war, the determination of justice (reward and punishment) and the profit of our sweat.

aztlanawaits
Elders await the Spiritual Plan of Aztlán

All Our Relations
Mitakuye Oyasin
Gus dii dada dv ni

Aho.  .  .

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